modulo - Part 6

We recall the definition of modulo. Two numbers $a$ and $b$ are said to be equal modulo $n$ if and only if $a-b$ is a multiple of $n$, and we write $a = b \pmod{n}$. For example, $9 = 1 \pmod{8}$ and $14 = -2 \pmod{8}$. 

In our usual arithmetic, we picture our integer numbers lying on the number line and we do addition and multiplication like this $2 + 7 = 9$, $2 \times 7 = 14$, etc...
our number line

modulo - Part 5

Today we will learn about Fermat's "little" Theorem. We will see that Fermat's little Theorem is very useful in modulo arithmetic. The theorem asserts that for any prime number $p$ and for any number $a$ not divisible by $p$,
$$ a^{p-1} = 1 \pmod{p} . $$

modulo - Part 4

One of the all-time famous mathematicians is Pierre de Fermat. He is a French mathematician and lived in the 17th century.

To mention Fermat, we must mention "his problem" - the Fermat's last problem. The problem that had challenged generations of mathematicians. Probably the reason that his problem is so well-known and attracted so much effort from top mathematicians as well as young school students is that it is stated so simple and that a secondary school student can understand it.

The Fermat's last problem is stated as follows. Prove that for any $n \geq 3$ the following equation does not have non-trivial solutions  
$$ x^n+y^n=z^n $$

Non-trivial solutions here mean non-zero solutions. This is because if  $x$, $y$ or $z$ is equal to 0 then the equation becomes trivial.

modulo - Part 3

Today, we are going to look at some more examples about modulo.

Example 1: Prove that $11 + 2011^{2012} + 2012^{2013}$ is divisible by 13.

modulo - Part 2

Last time, we have learnt about modulo. Two integers $a$ and $b$ are said to be equal modulo $n$, denoted by $a = b \pmod{n}$, iff $a-b$ is divisible by $n$.

For example, $15 = 3 \pmod{4}$ and $99 = -1 \pmod{10}$.

modulo - Part 1

Today we will look at an important concept in number theory -- the concept of modulo. Two integer numbers $a$ and $b$ are said to be equal modulo $n$ iff they have the same remainder when divided by $n$. Or equivalently, iff $(a-b)$ is divisible by $n$. We will write $a = b \pmod{n}$.