de Moivre's formula

In previous post we have learned about complex numbers. Today, we will learn about the trigonometric form of a complex number and the famous de Moivre's formula.

Complex number

Today we will learn about the complex numbers. The crucial point about complex numbers is that we accept a very special number that we will denote it by $i$. This number $i$ is very special because it satisfies the following identity $$i^2 = -1.$$

So a complex number will have the form $$a + ib$$ where $a$ and $b$ are two real numbers. When $b=0$ then $a + ib = a$ is just a normal real number, and when $a=0$ then $a + ib = ib$ is called a pure imaginary number. Here are some examples of complex numbers: $$1+ i, ~~ 2 - 3i, ~~ -\sqrt{3} + 4i, ~~5i - 4, ~~6, ~~i, ~~-3i, ~~4 + 2i, \dots$$