Pythagorean triples

In geometry, there is a well known theorem, called the Pythagorean Theorem, which says that in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides. 
Pythagorean Theorem: $BC^2 = AB^2 + AC^2$

That is why we call the equation $$x^2 + y^2 = z^2$$ the Pythagorean equation and its solution $(x,y,z)$ is called a Pythagorean triple. Of course, we only consider integer solutions.

Today, we will solve the Pythagorean equation and show that this equation has an infinite number of solutions.

Wilson's Theorem

Today, we will study Wilson's Theorem - a theorem concerning prime numbers. Wilson's theorem says that if $p$ is a prime number then the number $(p-1)! + 1$ will be divisible by $p$.

Here, the notation $n!$ denotes $$n! = 1 \times 2 \times 3 \times \dots \times n.$$

For example,
  • $1! + 1 = 2$ is divisible by $2$
  • $2! + 1 = 3$  is divisible by $3$
  • $4! + 1 = 25$  is divisible by $5$
  • $6! + 1 = 721$  is divisible by $7$

Some problems on prime numbers

In previous posts, we have learned about prime numbers, and we know from Euclid's Theorem that there exists an infinite number of primes. In this post, we continue to look at prime numbers. Leading mathematicians like Fermat, Euler, Gauss were all fascinated by prime numbers. There are many problems about primes that even the statements are simple, but they still remain unsolved even to this day.

Euclid's theorem on prime numbers

Continuing with our story about prime numbers, today we will prove that there exists an infinite number of primes. This is called the Euclid's theorem on prime numbers. This theorem has a very simple proof but it is probably one of the most beautiful proofs ever in mathematics.

Prime numbers

Today we will learn about prime numbers - a basic building block of arithmetic.

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 and has no divisors other than 1 and itself. For example, the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 are prime numbers. The number 9 is not a prime number because it is divisible by 3. The number 2012 is not a prime number because it is divisible by 2.