Fibonacci sequence and Pascal triangle

In previous post, we used the result of a tile matching puzzle to prove an identity for Fibonacci sequence. Today, we will continue on and prove another identity. We will show that $${2011 \choose 0} + {2010 \choose 1} + {2009 \choose 2}+ {2008 \choose 3}+ \dots + {1007 \choose 1004}+ {1006 \choose 1005} = F_{2012},$$ $${2012 \choose 0} + {2011 \choose 1} + {2010 \choose 2}+ {2009 \choose 3}+ \dots + {1007 \choose 1005}+ {1006 \choose 1006} = F_{2013}.$$
In general, we have the following identity $$\sum_{v+u=n}{v \choose u} = F_{n+1}.$$ Through this identity, we will see an interesting connection between the Fibonacci sequence and the Pascal triangle.

Fibonacci identities

In previous post, we have learnt about Fibonacci sequence and a tile matching puzzle. Today, we will use the result of the tile matching puzzle to prove the following identity on Fibonacci sequence $$F_{n+m+2} = F_{n+1} F_{m+1} + F_{n+1} F_m + F_n F_{m+1}.$$

Like an art painting, a mathematical problem reflects different beauties if we view it at different angles. Take, for example, the Fibonacci identity that we are considering, we can prove this identity by different methods. One method is to use the formula $$F_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}} \left[ \left( \frac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2} \right)^n - \left( \frac{1 - \sqrt{5}}{2} \right)^n \right]$$ to calculate the two sides of the identity and make them equal by straightforward algebraic manipulations. Another method is to make use of the tile matching puzzle that we learned in the previous post. I hope that you will find this "combinatorial" method more interesting.

Fibonacci numbers and a tile matching puzzle

Today we will learn about Fibonacci sequence and a tile matching puzzle. We will soon see that the tile matching puzzle seems to be unrelated to the Fibonacci sequence, but it turns out that the solution to the puzzle is, in fact, the Fibonacci sequence!

Let us first introduce the Fibonacci sequence. The Fibonacci sequence $\{F_n\}$ is determined by the following rule: $$F_0 = 0, ~F_1 = 1, ~F_{n+1} = F_n + F_{n-1}.$$

Thus, $$F_0 = 0, ~F_1 = 1, ~F_2 = 1, ~F_3 = 2, ~F_4 = 3, ~F_5 = 5, ~F_6 = 8, ~F_7 = 13, ~F_8 = 21, \dots$$