We derive this formula of $\cos{\frac{\pi}{5}}$ by observing that $\cos{\frac{2 \pi}{5}} = -\cos{\frac{3 \pi}{5}}$ and then applying the trigonometric formulas for double angle and triple angle:

$$\cos{2 x} = 2 \cos^2{x} - 1,$$ $$\cos{3 x} = 4 \cos^3{x} - 3 \cos{x}$$ to set up a cubic equation for $\cos{\frac{\pi}{5}}$.

It seems a good occasion now for us to learn about trigonometric multiple-angle formulas. In this post, we will show how to derive formulas for $\sin{nx}$, $\cos{nx}$, $\tan{nx}$ and $\cot{nx}$ using de Moivre's identity of the complex numbers.